Ancient history of India

Ancient History Of India

Ancient History Of India: If the history of India is included in the great chapters of the world, then it cannot be called an exaggeration at all. Explaining this, Jawaharlal Nehru i.e. the first Prime Minister of India had said that it is full of contradictions but strong ideals are tied with threads. The specialty of Ancient History of India is that it is engaged in a continuous process of self-discovery and keeps on increasing day by day and that is why if someone tries to understand it in the first place, then he finds it elusive.

The Ancient History of India is approx 75000 years old and its influence is found from the human activity of Homo sapiens. It is a very special thing that 5000 years ago the people of Indus Valley Civilization had developed an urban culture based on agriculture and trade.

If the ages are to be believed, then the Ancient History of India is something like this –

Pre-historic period

Stone Age

The Stone Age began between 500000 and 200000 years ago and a recent discovery in Tamil Nadu shows the presence of the first human beings here. Weapons made by humans for 200,000 years have also been discovered inside the North Panchami of the country.

Bronze Age

The Bronze Age in the subcontinent of Ancient History Of India began with the Indus Valley Civilization in the early 3300 BC. Apart from being a historical part of ancient India, it is also one of the earliest civilizations of the world along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and the people of this era inculcated new methods in metallurgy and handicrafts as well as in copper, lead, brass and tin was also produced.

Early historical period

Vedic period

The first to invade India were the Aryans and these approx 1500 BC came from the north and brought with them a strong cultural tradition. Sanskrit was one of the oldest languages spoken by him and was also used to write the Vedas. Which is considered to be the oldest text of 12th BC

Vedas are considered to be the oldest texts after Mesopotamian and Egyptian texts. Approximate within the subcontinent lasted from 1500-500 BC and from its beginning lay the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural dimensions. The Aryans spread the Vedic civilization all over North India, especially the plains of the Ganges.

Ancient History Of India
Ancient History Of India

Mahajanpad:

This period saw the second largest rise of sehirization since the Indus Valley Civilization. Maha sabad means the great and Janapada sthadha means the base of the tribe. Towards the end of the Vedic era, many small dynasties and states were being formed throughout the subcontinent and it is also mentioned in Buddhist and Jain literature which is as old as 1000 BC. By 500 BC there were 16 Garharajyas or you can say that the Mahajanapadas were established, examples Kasi, Anga, Kosala, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Vatsa or Panchala, Matsya, Surasena, Asaka, Avanti and Kamboja.

Maurya Empire

The empire of the Maurya descendants lasted from 322 – 185 BC and it was a very powerful state within the geographically extensive political and military of Ancient History Of India. In the subcontinent, Bihar was established by Morye on Magat i.e. today and it was greatly advanced under the rule of the great king Ashoka.

Persian and Greek Conquests:

Most of the subcontinent’s ups and downs in what is today Afghanistan and Pakistan came under the rule of Darius the Great of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in c. 520 BC and lasted for almost two centuries. In 326 BC, Alexander again Conquered Asia and the Augmented Empire, after which he reached the northern western border of the Indian subcontinent, defeated Raja Purus and dominated most of the Punjab area.

Prehistoric period: 400000 – 1000 BC.

Within this time man had discovered the gathering of food, the fire and the wheel.

Events of Ancient History Of India –

Indus Valley Civilization: 2500 BC. – 1500 BC.,

It got its name because of the Indus river and it has been improved after farming. And the people here also used to worship the natural resources of the garden.

Epic Age: 1000 – 600 BC.

During this period the compilation of Vedas took place and the distinction between the wards was exemplified by Arya and Das.

Hinduism and Change: 600 – 322 BC.

Within this time the caste system had become very strict and within this time Mahavir and Buddha had arrived and they started Bhagwat against casteism. Within this time, Mahajanapadas were formed and under Bimbisara’s rule Magad came, Ajat Satru, Shishunanga and Nanda dynasties were formed.

Mauryan period: 322 BC to 185 AD

The whole of North India was under this empire established by Chandragupta Maurya and Bindusara extended it further. King Ashoka started the Buddha after the Kalinga war during this time period.

Invasion: 185 BC to 320 AD

Bactrians, Parthians, Shakas and Kushans invaded during this time period. Central Asia opened for trade, the introduction of gold coins and the beginning of the Saka era.

Deccan and South: 65 BC to 250 AD

During this time period, the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas ruled the southern part and during this time the Ajanta Ellora Caves were built and the Sangam literature arrived in India.

Gupta Empire: 320 AD to 520 AD

Within this time period, Chandra Gupta established his empire, the classical era arrived in North India, Samudra Gupta expanded his dynasty and ChandraGupta Diviye fought against the Shakas. The Shakuntalam and the Kamasutra were composed within this era. Aryabhatta also did amazing work in astronomy and the Bhakti cult also emerged at this time.

Period of small kingdoms: 500 AD to 606 AD 

During this time period, migration to Central Asia and Iran was seen due to the arrival of the Huns in North India. Due to the war between the dynasties in many places in the north, many small kingdoms were formed.

Harshavardhana: 606 AD to 647 AD

During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Chinese traveler Hein Tsang visited India. After that, Harshavardhana’s kingdom was divided into many smaller states due to Hune’s attack.

And this was the same time period when Deccan and South became very powerful.

South Dynasty: 500 AD to 750 AD

During this time period the Pallava, Chalukya and Pandya empires flourished and the Parsis came to India.

Chola Empire: 9th BC to 13th BC

The Chola Empire established by Vijayalas adopted the policy of Samudra.

Temples now became cultural and social centres as well, and the Dravidian language flourished.

Northern Empire: 750 AD – 1206 AD

During this time period the Rashtrakutas become powerful, Palas ruled Bengal and Pratiharas ruled Avanti and this period saw the rise of Rajput clans.

Temples were also built in Kanchipuram, Khajuraho and miniature painting started and in the same period the Turks also invaded.

Mediaeval Indian History

Mughal Empire:

Do you know Fergana Velar, if not then tell you that this is Uzbekistan. Babur, a descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan, crossed the Khyber Pass in 1526 and established the Mughal Empire in present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent until 1600, and then the dynasty’s decline began after 1700, and finally ended in 1857, at the time of India’s first war of independence.

Ancient History Of India

Modern Indian History

Colonial period –

In the 16th century, the European powers from Portugal, France, the Netherlands and Britain established their trading centres in India. After that, taking advantage of internal differences, they also established their own colonies.

British Raj

When the British East India Company came to India in 1600, the British rule of Queen Victoria’s rule started here and it ended after the first war of India’s independence in 1857.

Famous people of 1857
1. Bahadur Shah Zafar

Most of the Indian rebels elected Bahadur Shah Zafar as the king of India and under him they all got united but they could not survive in front of the British conspiracy. After his fall, the more than three century old Mughal rule in India came to an end.

2 . Bakht Khan

Subedar Bakht Khan, who was inside the East India Company, formed an army of Rohilla soldiers. In May 1857, he became the commander of the Sepoy Army of Delhi after the revolt against the British and the soldier in Meerut.

3. Mangal Pandey

Stayed with the 34th Bengal Native Infantry and Mangal Pandey is known for attacking an English officer at Berakhpur on 29 March 1857. This incident is considered to be the beginning of India’s freedom struggle.

4. Nana Saheb

The adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao Divtiye, Nana Saheb also led the rebellion in Kanpur.

5. Rani Lakshmi Bai

Rani Lakshmi Bai along with Tatya Tope fought bravely against the British soldiers. On 17 June 1858, Rani Laxmi Bai sacrificed her life while fighting the British near the Phool Bagh area of ​​Gwalior.

6. Tatya Tope

Tatya Tope fought with the British along with Nana Saheb’s very close aide and general Rani Lakshmi Bai.

7. Veer Kunvar Singh

Presently part of Bhojpur district of Bihar and Raja of Jagdishpur led the armed forces against the British.

Indian Independence Movement and Mahatma Gandhi

Within the 20th century, Mahatma Gandhi led millions of people and in 1947 launched a non-violent civil disobedience movement for independence.

Freedom and division

Because of the British, due to the policy of divide and rule, religious tension between Hindus and Muslims increased in the last few years, especially in the provinces like Punjab and West Bengal. Mahatma Gandhi also appealed to the two religious communities to maintain unity, after the second world war, due to the weakening of the economy, the British decided to leave India, due to which the way to form an interim government was also found. The partition of India and Pakistan was also done and India got independence in 1947 due to British occupation.

Post-independence period:

After independence, many civilizations like Roman, Greek and Egyptian saw the rise and fall and Indian civilization and culture remained untouched by it. There were many invasions on India one after the other, many empires came and ruled different parts but the indomitable soul of India was not defeated by them.

And today India is seen in the form of the world’s largest democracy and the most vibrant state in the whole world. India is an emerging global superpower and an influential country in South Asia.

India is the second largest country in Asia and the whole world largest country number is seven. In terms of population, the second largest country comes under India, one third of the whole of Asia and the seventh part of the human race is in it.

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